Our Key Ingredient: Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)

Nicotinamide riboside (NR), is a unique member of the vitamin B3 family and has been found to be naturally occurring in milk in trace amounts [1]. The body converts NR into Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) which is an essential molecule found in every living cell.

NAD+ enables cells to convert the food that we eat into the energy that we need. NAD+ is also the communication molecule between the cell nucleus and the mitochondria which are the energy producing factories in the cell. If NAD+ levels are low, then communication may be impaired and mitochondrial dysfunction may result.

When this occurs, everything begins to break down.

Why is NR better than other forms of vitamin B3?

In 2004, NR emerged as a newly discovered NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) precursor and has been pre-clinically demonstrated to be superior to both nicotinamide and niacin in increasing NAD+, both of which are standard forms of vitamin B3 commonly used in vitamin supplements and foods [2-4]. This is because NR is not reliant upon a conversion step requiring the enzyme "NAMPT" [7-8]. The activity level of NAMPT determines the amount of nicotinamide that is converted into NAD+, which is why this step is commonly referred to as the "rate limiting step"[9].

As normal ageing occurs, the activity of NAMPT is thought to decrease [10-14]. NR can be used by the cell to make NAD+ without this enzymatic step. Moreover, unlike nicotinic acid, NR does not bind to the receptor responsible for flushing.

Collagen is the main structural protein that provides strength and elasticity to skin, bones, cartilage and connective tissue. Cell Revival contains type 2 collagen, which can stimulate collagen production and help with joint pain. Our collagen is also hydrolysed, which means it’s more easily absorbed into the body compared to normal collagen.
Orally administered collagen hydrolysate (type 2 collagen) has been shown to be absorbed intestinally and to accumulate in cartilage. Collagen production is stimulated and the density of collagn fibrils and fibroblasts increases.
Vitamin C
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) is a powerful antioxidant for the synthesis of collagen, the structural element that provides for shape and firmness in your skin. Ageing and excessive exposures to UV light or pollutants cause a decline in vitamin C in your body.
Your body cannot generate vitamin C, so you must receive it through supplements and food. Apart from preventing skin ageing symptoms, vitamin C can also enhance your immune system, protecting you from colds and coughs. It also facilitates the absorption of iron, which is an essential component of haemoglobin (a major protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from your lungs to transport it throughout our body) Vitamin C also has an impressive ability to protect and treat a wide range of diseases, including cancer.
Deficiency symptoms: Fatigue, depression and connective tissue defects (e.g. gingivitis, petechiae, rash, internal bleeding and impaired wound healing).
What are Antioxidants?
Intracellular and extracellular oxidative stress initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) advance skin ageing, which is characterised by wrinkles and atypical pigmentation. UV exposure can enhance ROS generation in cells. The use of antioxidants is an effective approach to prevent symptoms related to photo-induced ageing of the skin.
Antioxidants can protect your body from the harmful effects of free radicals, which are molecules that have an unpaired electron. Because of this unpaired electron, free radicals seek out electrons from other cells, oxidising them and damaging them and the tissues they form. Oxidation caused by free radicals is believed to be a primary cause of age-related degeneration and disease.
Hyaluronic Acid (HA)
Hyaluronic acid is a naturally occurring biodegradable polymer with a variety of applications in medicine, including scaffolding for tissue engineering, dermatological fillers and lubrication for joint conditions. HA is available in most connective tissues in body fluids, responsible for several structural properties of tissues, and involved in cellular signaling. A reduction in HA mass or molecular weight via degradation or slowing of synthesis affects physical and chemical properties such as tissue volume, viscosity and elasticity.
HA can be a key player in the activation or suppression of inflammation by participating in the improvement of cell infiltration. HA can bind a large number of water molecules which improves tissue hydration and their resistance to mechanical damage. HA is widely available, fully resorbable, and biocompatible and can also be used as a marker in the diagnosis of certain cancers and liver diseases.
Vitamin D3
Vitamin D3 is an immobile, steroid hormone that can be synthesised when skin is exposed to sunlight or from the diet. Vitamin D3 influence directly or indirectly almost all metabolic reactions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory processes and mutagenesis. It is able to regulate intestinal, bone and kidney calcium and phosphorus absorption as well as bone mineralisation. There is growing evidence for the neuroprotective function of vitamin D3 through neuronal calcium regulation, the antioxidative pathway, immunomodulation and detoxification.
Vitamin D3 can also reduce pro-inflammatory changes and hippocampal ( a major component of your brain) degenerative processes, and is responsible for decreasing signs of ageing. In both animals and humans, vitamin D3 improves neuroprotection, interplay with neurotransmitters and hormones, behaviour regulation, brain ageing, and other brain processes.
Deficiency symptoms: Hair loss, dermatitis, blood cholesterol levels, and heart problems
Vitamin A
Vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids) are essential for many biological processes such as vision, immune function, reproduction and differentiation. Particularly, vitamin A is required for the formation of rhodopsin, a photoreceptor pigment in the retina. Vitamin A is also important for overall bone health, helping to offset the effects of osteoporosis (a bone disease that occurs when the body makes too little bone and or when the body loses too much bone) as you get older.
Most importantly, vitamin A is an antioxidant which helps neutralise free radical damage, preventing age-related degeneration and disease. Vitamin A has been demonstrated to inhibit the growth and development of different type of tumours, including skin, breast, oral cavity, lung, liver, gastrointestinal, prostate, and bladder cancers.
Deficiency symptoms: Ocular diseases (e.g. xerophthlmia, night blindness, vision loss), shortening and thickening of bones, atrophy of the testes, fetal reabsorption, immunodeficiency and retardation.
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol)
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble compound that helps skin retain moisture. When added to creams or lotions such as sunscreen, it can repair dry, cracked skin and protect against UVB damage. Vitamin E is an antioxidant which helps prevent and limit the damage caused by free radicals and oxidation.
Vitamin E can also strengthen your immune system and prevent unnecessary blood clot, which lowers your risk of a stroke or heart attack. Vitamin E may also prevent cognitive delay/decline in the elderly due to the antioxidant effect on the brain’s neurones.
Deficiency: Decrease in immune function, neurological problems (e.g. loss of vibratory sensation and reflexes) anaemia due to oxidative damage to red blood cells.
Biotin (Vitamin B7)
Biotin is a water-soluble vitamin that works synergistically with other B vitamins. It can prevent mitochondrial decay (a major contribution of ageing), oxidative stress and cellular deterioration with age.
Biotin deficiency (BD) causes 40-50% decrease in heme content (the major non-protein component of haemoglobin, which is largely present in our blood cells and involved in transferring oxygen to the tissues in our body). A decrease in heme content leads to a loss of mitochondrial complex IV, which triggers oxidant release and oxidative damage. People taking antibiotics or sulphonamide antibacterial drugs may also derive benefit from taking biotin supplements.
Deficiency symptoms: Hair loss, dermatitis, hair blood cholesterol levels, and heart problems.
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